Dating the sphinx construction
Egypt was an arid land before the time of the first Pharaohs.
In recent times it has only taken a couple of decades for the Sphinx to be buried up to its neck by sand blown in from the desert, as can be seen in this photo from the 19th Century.
At an International Conference of Geoarchaeology and Archaeomineralogy held in Bulgaria, two scientists presented existing geological studies to determine when this erosion may have occurred.
Arguing that rising sea water caused the Nile River to overflow and the Giza plateau to flood, Vjacheslav Manichev and Alexander Parkhomenko used this information to establish that the age of the Sphinx may actually be over 800,000 years old.
It was an odd sensation climbing over the Great Pyramid, looking for minute flecks of charcoal or other datable material, loaded down with cameras, scales, notebooks, and forms with entries for sample number, site, monument, area, feature, material (charcoal, reed, wood, etc.), matrix (gypsum mortar, mud brick, etc.), date, time, notes on details, extracted by, logged by, photograph numbers, and sketches. The 1984 radiocarbon dates from monuments spanning Dynasty 3 (Djoser) to late Dynasty 5 (Unas), averaged 374 years older than the Cambridge Ancient History dates of the kings with whom the pyramids are identified.
It was 1984 and the Edgar Cayce Foundation, named for an early twentieth-century psychic who claimed that the Sphinx and Khufu's Great Pyramid were built in 10,500 B. Old friends and supporters of the deceased psychic had visited Giza in the early 1980s and several of them were willing to put their beliefs to the test by radiocarbon dating the Great Pyramid. and built the Giza Pyramids in a span of 85 years between 25 B. In spite of this discrepancy, the radiocarbon dates confirmed that the Great Pyramid belonged to the historical era studied by Egyptologists.
In other words, even if you do accept that the Sphinx was built when most Egyptologists say it was, there is still the question of in which pharaoh’s reign it was built. According to translations of the “Dream Stela” at the foot of the Sphinx, King Thutmose IV came across the head of the Sphinx when he was still a prince. He took shelter from the sun in the shadow of the great head.
Archaeologists believe it is the work of the Old Kingdom Dynasty 4 society that rose to prominence in the Nile Valley from ca. In dealing with the 374-year discrepancy, we had to consider the old wood problem.
In 1984 we thought it was unlikely that the pyramid builders consistently used centuries-old Egyptian wood as fuel in preparing mortar.
In the early photo, the deterioration is clearly visible.
The recent photo shows the extensive restorations done around the neck and edges of the headress.